A to Z of Mobile Marketing: A Complete Glossary for Every Marketer
Mobile marketing glossary by Affle lists all the latest and key terminologies that will help you understand the marketing ecosystem and relevant terminologies. If you are looking to expand your industry knowledge, you will find all the relevant information sorted in alphabetical order for you.
A/B testing is one of the campaign optimization techniques which helps marketers to choose between the 2 options. Also termed as split testing or bucket testing, it compares two variants of a live campaign element (ad copy, landing page, creative design, or any other mobile advertising attribute and others) to improve the performance.
Acquisition in marketing is the process of gaining a new customer, which could be over any platform – website, app, and more. In mobile marketing, it could be getting a user to install an app, or asking a user to fill a form on the website.
An active user is a user who interacts with the app for a specified time. The number of active users is an indicator of the app performance as it implies how engaging users find the app. A number of active users, when compared with the number of installs, can be a key performance indicator in mobile marketing where it shows if the campaign is targeting the right audience. Active users could be again categorized into DAU – Daily active users, MAU – monthly active users, or WAU weekly active users.
An ad campaign is a series of advertisements run by an advertiser with a similar message and objective. These ads may be adjusted as per the requirement of different platforms, devices, and user behaviors.
The ad network connects the advertiser and the publisher. The role of an ad network is to act as a bridge between the demand and supply side of the advertising industry.
Ad Server is an advertising technology (adtech) that runs the advertisements on the devices of the targeted audience. It helps advertisers, publishers, and networks to manage and track ad campaigns. It serves multiple actions for the involved parties, such as picking ads for a website, filling space with relevant ads, managing reports of the clicks, and other metrics.
Advertisement is a sponsored marketing communication that aims to generate leads, gain conversions, or promote the brand. In the mobile marketing segment, the advertisement can be of various forms, such as video, images, textual, and more.
An advertiser is a person or business for whose app, products, or services the ad campaign is run.
Analytics is an arrangement of data to draw meaningful insights out of it, which can support decision making. It helps the advertisers to realize the merits of advertisers, networks, publishers, and other parties involved in the campaign. Analytics can be used for transparent incentive distribution as well as campaign optimizations. There are many tools that help marketers run analytics across desktop and mobile marketing. One of the examples is google analytics.
Application Programming Interface (API) of a software program forms a communication channel with other applications. For the mobile advertising industry, API enables the tracking of analytics related to the app. App-based KPIs (like first-time deposit, session length, and others) are tracked in Mobile Measurement Partner (MMP) are tracked using API of the app.
App monetization is the process of making money using an app. Depending on the app vertical, methods involved in the app monetization can be different. While some apps directly charge the users for using features of the apps, others may offer the app for free and use other app monetization methods such as in-app advertisements, selling the collected user data, and others.
App preview is a presentation of the app interface and functions. Generally, it is used in the ad to users a ‘look and feel’ experience of the app without installing it on their device. App preview can use video recordings of the app and screenshots of the app.
App Store is a marketplace from which users can download and install mobile applications. Though there are some operating system independent stores, most are specific to the operating system of the device. App stores list the apps in various orders and categories. For app developers, app stores mostly offer both organic as well as paid marketing options. An app store is specific to mobile marketing and might not be relevant for desktop-based marketing.
Application or app is a software program that is downloaded on the mobile device. Compared to the web-based tool, an app performs faster as most of UI elements are already stored on the device and escapes the network latency. With API, it can even track the user behavior better to help app developers and marketers deliver a better experience.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a set of processes of machine that collects data and learns to processes it. In advertising, AI can collect user insights and use that information to run advertisements for better conversion as well as user experience.
ASO (App Store Optimization)
App Store Optimization (ASO) is the process of updating your app information on its app store page rank higher, gain more visibility, and attract more users. Different app stores have varying factors for optimization such as app category, number of installs, rating by customers, and more.
An attribute is a data point collected during the campaign. Attributes can be of various types, such as device attributes, publisher attributes, click source attributes and others. They are helpful in identifying user interests, source performance, and campaign performance, which is used for campaign optimization and incentive distribution. For the mobile ecosystem, attribution also means who takes the credit for an install, click, impression or more.
Attribution modeling is the set of attributions required to deduce the conversion success path for users. For campaigns that run on complex KPIs, the attribution model is important for advertisers to identify the campaign achievement and distributing the credits to different sources.
Attribution window is the duration of time for which an attribute and attribution model is available for sources to claim their credits. For example, some tools provide an attribution window of 3 months, which means, they would consider the active period of evaluation.
Average Revenue per Daily Active User (ARPDAU)
Average Revenue per Daily Active User (ARPDAU) is a calculation of the average daily revenue earned from the users. It’s a useful metric in identifying the quality of users that a source earns.
ARPDAU = Daily Income / Daily Active Users
Average Revenue Per User (ARPU)
Average Revenue per User (ARPU) is the ratio of total revenue generated by an app and the total number of users. With this measurement metrics, the advertiser or marketer can predict the budget and growth opportunities with future campaigns.
ARPU = Total Revenue / Number of Users
A backlink is a hyperlink that one website gets from another website. Since the backlink is a source of referral traffic, websites may monetize in return for offering backlinks.
Banner ads in mobile marketing are visual ads that use images to engage users. Such ads generally have small text elements and a click to action button to redirect users to a destination defined by the advertiser.
Big Data is a field of study that collects, analyzes, and computer data at a micro-level to draw meaningful insights. For the traditional data processing, big data is complex and involves larger processing resources. Supported by AI, Big Data can help advertisers to target users more precisely, such as – over the specific platform, at the relevant time, and so on.
Boost or burst campaign is a marketing campaign that runs for a short duration that aims at gaining fast results.
The bounce rate is a metric that indicates the rate at which the number of visitors on the webpage who leave without taking an action on the website. For example, If all visitors are moving to another page of the same website, your bounce rate will be 0% and If all visitors are moving to another website, your bounce rate will be 100%.
Callback (also known as pushback) is the ping that verifies the server in case of any event.
The churn rate for an app indicates the number of users who uninstall the app. In mobile marketing, a high churn rate is an indication that your users are not satisfied with the app or unwanted segment of users are installing it.
Click injection is a mobile ad fraud in which a malicious app (that’s already installed on the user’s device) imposes the click to run your app after installation and to claim credit for installation.
Click-spam (or click spamming) is a mobile ad fraud in which bot-based script executes clicks on behalf of the users without their awareness.
Click to Call
Click to call is a feature available on websites and apps, using which the user can request an immediate phone call.
Click validation is the process of verifying every click recorded in the ad campaign with the impression.
The cohort is a method of segmenting the audience on the basis of some events and experiences. They are considered to be more precise targeting options than demographics as it gives reach based on user behavior. A retention cohort, for example, explains how many users who came on day 1, are still using your app on day 30.
Cohort analysis is a method to gather observations from the behavior of users on the ads, app, or website. It can be used to optimize the campaigns and gain better conversions as it divides the audience into different segments that help in targeting users with a more personalized approach.
Conversion is generally referred to the successful completion of the sale. Based on the event cycle in your marketing or sales process, the movement of users from one level in the funnel to another is also called a conversion.
The conversion rate is the number of sales conversions compared to the number of leads collected.
Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO)
Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO) is a practice followed at different parts (such as ads, landing pages, reduction of app size, and more) of the user’s conversion journey to improve the conversion rate on a website or an app. CRO is one of the key areas of focus for marketers as it helps them drive more value at lower stages of the marketing funnel.
Conversion tracking is the tracking of the user interactions at different stages of the sales funnels right from the visibility of ads to the sales conversion.
The cost model is a pricing model based on which the advertiser pays to the network or publisher. Various performance indexes depending on impression or engagement can be used for deciding the cost model. Some of the popular cost models are CPA, CPM, CPC, etc.
CPA Mobile Campaign
CPA is Cost per Action or Cost per Acquisition. CPA mobile campaign follows the cost model in which advertisers pay for every successful user acquisition on the app. This, in the case of mobile marketing, could mean running ads and releasing payouts for every user who has installed and registered himself or herself on the app with email or phone number.
CPC Mobile Campaign
CPC stands for Cost per Click. CPC mobile campaign follows the cost model in which the advertiser has to pay for every click on the ad.
CPCV Mobile Campaign
CPCV means Cost per Completed Video. In the CPCV mobile campaign, the advertiser pays for on the view through (i.e. when the viewer completes the video).
CPE Mobile Campaign
Cost per Engagement (CPE) mobile campaign requires the advertiser to pay for engagement with the ads. For most ad publishers, it is similar to the CPC model. However, it is a popular model among social media platforms as engagement options can be various.
CPI Mobile Campaign
CPI stands for Cost per Install. CPI mobile campaign, one of the most popular models in-app marketing, follows a cost model in which advertisers pay when the user installs the application on their device.
CTA is Click to Action, which invites the user to click on it to initiate an action. It is usually offered as the button, on which the user can click to submit a form, install an app, start a chat, dial a phone number, and so forth.
CTIT (Click to Install Time) is a time difference between click made to start the installation of the app and click to open the app.
CTR is Click Through Ratio, which implies the ratio of the number of clicks and the number of impressions.
Customer Data Platform
The customer data platform is software that maintains customer profiles along with their score aligned with different data points collected from various sources.
A user converts into the customer when they make the first transaction. Therefore, customer acquisition refers to the first transaction of a user. In some cases, you can interpret the meaning of user acquisition similar to customer acquisition as the new user may initiate the first paid transaction as well. User acquisition and customer acquisition can be the same for some business models, but not always.
Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV or CLV)
Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV or CLV) is a metric to predict the value of a customer for the business when a futuristic relationship is taken into consideration.
Daily Active Users (DAUs)
Daily Active Users (DAUs) are the number of users who engage with the app per day. For the app developers or advertisers, DAU is a helpful metric in analyzing the user experience and predicting retention rate as it is a precursor to retention.
Deep linking is the hyperlink that redirects the users directly to the product/service page for which they clicked on the ad. It saves the process of taking users to the homepage of the website or app and making them search for the product. Deep linking is more crucial with mobile because it enables users to reach the exact location in the app instead of just opening the app.
Demand-Side Platform (DSP) is software that offers a unified dashboard for buyers to find and manage different ad exchanges and data exchanges.
Device Crossover Attributes
The device crossover attribute is a metric to calculate credit of different platforms across devices that pushed for the conversion.
The device ID is a unique identity of the device that allows advertisers better tracking of their ad campaigns.
Direct traffic is the number of visitors to your app and website who land directly without any referral or paid activity. For example, instead of searching your website on a search engine, the visitor types your website URL on the browser. Direct traffic is an indicator of your brand value.
Effective Cost per Thousand Impressions (eCPM) is calculated after the campaign is over to measure the expenses of per thousand impressions, regardless of the cost model adopted.
The emulated device is a software program that enables the devices to perform as another platform. For example, you can mobile apps on Windows desktop using the emulated device program. It is helpful in testing apps, campaign ads, and landing pages for cross-device performance.
An engaged user is the one who interacts with the advertisement, website, or app. The number of engaged users on the app is a crucial metric to analyze the performance and user experience.
The engagement rate is the ratio of the number of engaged users and the total number of ad impressions.
Engagement Rate = (Number of Engaged Users/Total Impressions)
An event in the app or website is an action taken by the user, such as install, registration, purchase a product, and so on.
Fake install is a mobile ad fraud in which fraudster inflicts using methods (such as the emulated devices) that don’t involve real users are known as fake installs.
Fill rate is the number of ads that are successfully filled in the advertising space. The metric is usually considered in the CPM campaigns, where it is calculated as the ratio of total impressions served by ad network and the number of impressions requested by the advertiser.
Fill Rate = Ad Requests answered / Ad Requests Sent
Fingerprinting (also known as device fingerprinting) is a digital method to identify the devices over which ads have run. It carries a set of information about the device to track the advertising campaigns better.
The fractional attribute is a metric used to define the significance of different touchpoints with the user before the defined target (such as app install, lead collection, etc.) is achieved.
Funnel Analysis is the process of mapping the steps that a user takes to complete the conversion. The objective of funnel analysis is to identify and solve the challenges that can help in improving conversion at different stages.
Geofencing is a technology that allows advertisers to use IP addresses of users to restrict their ads within the geographical regions for their target audience.
Geotargeting is a process that helps advertisers to target the audience in selected regions along with other criteria including demographics, behaviors, and interests.
A hashtag is a type of metadata that uses a word or phrase with the hash (#) sign to indicate the highlighted information or keyword. It is generally used in social media to help the users post or find the content with similar relevancy.
IDFA stands for The Identifier for Advertisers helps the advertisers to track the Apple devices to help them deliver the customized ad campaigns.
The impression is referred to the point at which an ad is fetched on the webpage or app.
In-app ads are the advertisements that run within the apps installed on the user’s device. Here the app on which ad is running is the publisher.
The in-app message is a personalized message displayed to the user within an app. It could be a promotional or informative message customized for the users to prolong the session in the app or optimize the conversion. In-app messages can be rooted in analytics to trigger based on the interaction of the user.
The in-app notification is an app notification displayed when the user is already active on the app.
The in-app purchase is an app monetization model in which the user makes a transaction (to buy a product or service, unlock app features, etc.) within the app.
Incent traffic is a practice in which users are rewarded to interact with the ad. It means users are paid some incentive for the engagement. Some advertisers (like VAS and casual games) may opt for such a model. However, if the advertiser has not requested the incent traffic, then it is considered to be a fraud practice because the network or publisher may offer an incentive to attract users, who are not actually interested in using the app. Non-incent traffic generally has a higher intent to engage with the app.
Incrementality is the lift that advertiser to the conversion rate. Advertiser may spend for ads on different channels for the conversion, which otherwise may not have happened. Incrementality can help to give credit to different retargeting touchpoints that led to the conversion of the user.
Install means that some files of the program are hosted on the device hard drive and is accessible without network.
Install Referrer/App Install Referrer
Install Referrer is an API from Google Play collects and shares the app install details such as URL of the referrer (or the last source from which the user reached app install page), the timestamp of the click to install, the timestamp when the installation started and others.
The instant app is a limited version of the app that users can use to test it before deciding to install the app.
Interstitial ads are the ads that cover the entire user interface of the app on which the ad is running. Generally, such ads have a fixed time duration before which the user can close them.
For advertisers, inventory in mobile marketing refers to the collection of publishers. For the publishers, inventory is the number of advertisements available to fill the advertising space. Usually, ad networks maintain the respective inventories for all parties.
The journey map is a visual layout to present the interactions of the user at different touchpoints. It helps in analyzing and improving customer relationships.
KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator. It signifies the attributes and metrics of the ad campaign based on which advertisers make payments to the networks and publishers.
Long Tail Keyword
Long-tail keywords are phrases that users are likely to use when they are searching on the search engines. They are a more specific and detailed query about the keyword, which is usually the reason they are longer than the keyword.
Lifecycle tracking is the process of analyzing the user interaction at various stages of the funnel.
Limit Ad Tracking
Limit Ad Tracking (LAT) is an option for users to opt-out from sharing Device ID (as mentioned in New Device Fraud) with the advertisers. It is available with all leading phone platforms, such as Android, iOS, and several others.
Location-based advertising enables advertisers to run ads across a location. It is helpful in the promotion of location stores and driving online-to-offline conversions.
Machine Learning (ML) is the science of the computing machine to collect and analyze the information to update the functionalities.
Marketing automation refers to the implementation of tools and platforms in order to execute different marketing actions automatically.
MAU (Monthly Active Users)
MAU or Monthly Active Users is a metric that represents the total number of unique users who are running the apps and performing actions in the month.
The mediation platform is a solution for publishers to send the ad request to multiple ad networks. It allows publishers to pick the ad network to fill their slot in the most relevant and profitable manner.
Mobile Ad Fraud
Mobile ad fraud refers to the frauds caused in mobile advertising. Fraudsters use various methods to hijack the credit from the productive sources and manipulate the attributes to make advertisers pay more.
Mobile Advertising is the advertising which targets users on mobile devices across different apps and formats. Mobile advertising offers a various number of advertising options such as text messages, web-based ads, in-app ads, etc.
Mobile Marketing is the marketing exercise (which could be paid as well as organic) that is carried across mobile devices to reach users over apps, web browsing, SMS, and other mobile communication options.
Mobile network or mobile operators allow voice and data transfers over mobile devices. It uses radiofrequency to enable this communication.
Multi-Touch Attribution is the process of tracking different touchpoints and their influence at which users were targeted with the advertisements. There are various forms of attributions that are practiced in the industry, such as linear, time-decay, full-path, and more.
Multichannel marketing is the process of running marketing campaigns across different channels, which could be social media, search engines, and others to target the users as per their personal preferences.
Native advertising is a type of advertising that customizes the ad according to the device and channel on which the ad is displayed. Its smooth adaption with the platform makes it look similar to organic feeds on the device and hence improving the chances of engagement.
A native app is an app that is developed for a specific device or a platform. For its precise development for the device and platform, native apps generally deliver better user experience than other development models.
NPS (Net Promoter Score) is a metric to measure the loyalty of a user. It rates the user’s loyalty on a scale of 1 to 10
Non-incent Traffic is the number of users coming from ads that don’t include a reward as distinct from incentivized traffic.
Omnichannel marketing is a marketing practice that allows the advertiser to reach the customer across different channels, which could be online (social media, web browsing, installed apps, and more) as well as offline (stores).
Onboarding is the after-sale process in which an advertiser (or seller) helps the customer in getting familiar with using the services or products.
Opt-in is an agreement by the user to user for subscription
Opt-out is the refusal by the user to opt for the subscription of any kind of communication.
Optimization is the process of improving metrics at various touchpoints by modifying them to increase the impression, conversions, and other parameters.
Organic Uplift is an indicator of the increase in organic downloads. It is usually represented in the percentage of the difference between before and after an ad campaign.
Pay Per Download
Pay Per Download is a cost model in which the advertiser pays for every download
Personalization is the customization of the app or ad message with the needs of each user. App users can give this choice to the users to select the features in the app or also use Big Data and AI to execute the personalization.
Pivot Analysis is a metric to represent a trend. Advertisers can use it to observe various performance indicators of the ad networks, publishers, and user behaviors.
Programmatic Media Buying
Programmatic Media Buying is an algorithm that book the advertising space with publishers based on the requirements of the advertiser. It automates the process and saves the effort of manually booking the ad space.
Psychographic Segmentation is a process of filtering the audience on the basis of psychological characteristics, beliefs, and behavior. It helps in narrowing the ad targeting as advertisers can plan different communication and conversion cycles as per affinity for each segment.
The publisher is an app or website that offer ad spaces on which ads are run. Usually, they are high traffic sources for the audience relevant to an advertiser’s target.
Push Amplification is a technique used to enhance the delivery and conversion from push notifications.
Push Notification is an automated message on the device on which the app is installed. Push notification can be customized as per the user preferences and behavior. It can be scheduled to be sent even when the app is not running.
QR Code is the machine-readable digital information that is presented as an array of black and white square boxes. When ready successfully by the machine, it can carry provide or redirect to information, such as contact details, website URL, and others.
Re-Engagement is the technique by which the app tries to engage the user repeatedly.
Reattribution is the attribution that helped in re-engaging an existing user. It can be helpful in re-installing the app or increasing sessions.
Reattribution Window is the time period for which attributes and their performance in the retargeting campaigns are measured.
Retargeting is the method of attracting visitors who may be a potential customer as suggested by their previous internet activities. It can help the advertisers in gaining conversion by reaching potential customers across the platforms while existing customers can be targeted to enhance higher LTV.
Retention cohorts are behavioral points of the existing users that can be addressed in the campaigns to increase user retention.
Retention Rate is a metric that indicates the frequency at which a user opens the app after installing the app.
Customer Retention Rate = (E-N)/S)*100
E is Number of customers at the end of a period
N is Number of new customers acquired during that period
S is Number of customers at the start of that period
RFM analysis investigates three metrics – Recency, Frequency, and Monetary Value (RFM) of the users. Recency means how recently the user has purchased, frequency means how frequently they make the purchases, and monetary value defines the purchase size. RFM analysis is helpful in optimizing the ROI of the campaigns. It is measured as:
R on a scale of 1 to 10, suggesting the number of months passed since the last purchase
F on a scale of 1 to 10, suggesting the number of purchases in the last year
M suggesting the highest value being the amount of purchase
Rich User Profiles
Rich user profiles are those profiles which carry high information of the users collected from different sources to understand. Such profiles are easier to target with the right solutions.
ROI is a comparison of the return from a campaign with the investment that was made to run the campaign. It is an important indicator of campaign success.
ROI = Net Income / Cost of Investment
ROI = Investment Gain / Investment Base
Real-Time Bidding (RTB)
Real-Time Bidding (RTB) is a process that enables automatic bidding for ad impressions in real-time.
Scheduled campaigns are the ones that have been set up but will run at a later time as scheduled by the advertisers.
A screenshot is a visual that captures your device screen.
A session refers to the instance when the user engages with the apps and websites.
Session Interval is a metric showing how frequently your one user opens the app or website by calculating the time between the last and the next sessions.
Session Length is how much time a user spent on your app or website.
Social Media Campaigns
Social Media Campaigns is a campaign that is created on a social media platform like Facebook or Instagram to increase brand awareness and the number of downloads.
SDK stands for Software Development Kit, which is a set of tools to support software development. In mobile marketing, SDK integrates with MMP to track and share the app usage attributes.
SDK Spoofing is a type of ad fraud in which fraudster utilizes the SDK to manipulate install attributes in the real device without any actual installed by the user.
Segmentation is the process of filtering the audience on the basis of various factors that help advertisers to target the relevant users precisely.
SMS stands for Short Message Service, which allows text communication over mobile devices without requiring an internet connection.
Social Media Campaign
Social Media Campaign is an ad campaign that runs on one or multiple social media channels.
Sub-publishers are those publishers that run ads but haven’t been assigned by the advertisers directly. Ad networks or publishers may distribute the ad further to sub-publishers, which can be tracked using SubIDs.
Third-party tools are software to track and analyze various metrics in the ad campaigns, in-app events, and others.
Targeting is the process of segmenting potential users on various parameters to optimize the campaign results.
Time of Inactivity
The time of inactivity is the duration for which the user has not performed any activity on the app.
Trackers are the information collected from the user’s device to analyze user behavior, performance, and others.
Trigger campaign is the event to start the ad campaign.
Uninstall is the process in which the user removes the app from the device.
Universal linking is a technique to run an app installed on the device when the user clicks the link anywhere on the web or any other app. These play a key role in mobile marketing.
User Acquisition (UA) refers to the addition of a new user on your website, mobile app, and other such platforms. Depending on the industry and business model, there are various marketing activities (paid as well as organic) that drive user acquisition.
User Acquisition Cost
User Acquisition Cost is the expense of marketing spent in adding a new user to your business. User acquisition (UA) campaigns may involve paid as well as organic channels, and User Acquisition Cost generally works as a metric to measure the performance of your UA campaigns.
User Experience, also known as UX, is the performance in various perspectives, such as emotional, that a user experiences while using your app, ads, or website.
User Interface, also known as UI, defines the look and feel of the app experienced by the user.
Visibility is a score that measures how easily visible your app in app stores.
View-through attribution is a metric that helps advertisers to attribute the KPIs like install, purchase, etc. from the campaign based on impression models.
Viral marketing is an approach in which users spread information about the advertisers on their own.
Visibility or Ad Visibility
Visibility or ad visibility is defined as the actual time and area an online ad is viewable by users within their browser windows. In mobile marketing, rightly measuring this is very important to ensuring ads are visible to the right customers and in a brand-safe way.
Web Push Notifications
Web push notifications are messages pushed by a website on the web browser. For mobile marketing, push notifications can be categorized into browser push notifications or in-app push notifications.
An XML sitemap is an index of all the URLs available on a website. It helps the crawling tools to list the pages that it needs to crawl. Including mobile marketing, sitemap.xml file tells google the files to crawl. Ideally, the sitemap should be also written down in robots.txt file that stays in the root folder of your website.
Year-to-date (YTD) is the time period from the beginning of the year to the present day.
Zero Cost Strategy
Zero cost strategy is a marketing practice in which two parties exchange the benefits with each other that does not involve cost directly.